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Wow, that was fast! Why trimarans are SO much fun to sail – and how to do it

  • Theo Stocker
  • February 13, 2024

For their size, trimarans can punch well above their weight in speed, cruising potential and fun. Monohull sailor Theo Stocker gets to grips with how to handle one

Humans tend to gravitate into tribes of like-minded enthusiasts, enjoying the encouragement, support and sense of identity, while often looking askance at others; sailors at motorboaters, cruising sailors at racers, monohull sailors at raft, I mean, multihull sailors, and everyone looks askance at jet-skiers.

Large cruising catamarans (40ft now counts as a small one) are a world apart from monohull sailing, but there’s a sub-tribe of sailors dedicated to life on three hulls and builders such as Dragonfly, Corsair, Farrier, and Astus give them plenty of choice.

I’ve been sailing a 22ft (7m) Astus 22.5 this season, with just enough space for a family of four and a minimum of creature comforts. Thanks to her VPLP-designed hulls and 650kg all-up weight, we can sail upwind at 7-plus knots and downwind at over 10 knots with ease, all on a roughly even keel, while the kids play Duplo down below. It can also be beached and is towable behind a car.

Having, it seems, caught the trimaran bug, I wanted to get better at sailing and handling the boat, but my monohull sailing experience and habits were proving something of a hindrance, so we sought advice from some existing trimaran owners, and well as the UK’s top multihull sailors.

Much of the advice will apply to all multihulls , whether two or three-hulled, while other parts are just for small trimarans. I also found that brushing-up some of my rusty dinghy sailing skills helped get my head around what we were trying to do.

To try out our expert tips we went out sailing to see what difference they made. On the day, we got a solid Force 4-5 southwesterly, averaging 16 knots, but fluctuating between 12 and 20 knots true.

lunghezza trimarano

Blasting about on a sporty trimaran is a whole world of fun, but is much calmer than it looks

Trimaran sail trim

One of the biggest differences between a cruising monohull and a multihull is how the mainsail is trimmed. Leech tension on a yacht is often largely controlled by the kicker and the backstay, while the mainsheet sheets the mainsail in and out, predominantly controlling the angle of the boom to the centreline, and there may be a short traveller.

On a mulithull, however, there’s more than enough space for a good, wide traveller. Those who sail on performance monohulls will also be used to this. The sail shape is mainly controlled by the mainsheet, and the traveller then moves the boom towards or away from the centreline.

This is exaggerated on a multihull which has wide shrouds, swept well aft with no backstay, making space for a powerful square-top mainsail with full-length battens. There’s no backstay to bend the mast and flatten what is anyway a pretty rigid mainsail.

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The mainsheet purchase creates enough power to control the leech of the square-top mainsail

Depowering a trimaran

Sailing on a monohull, heel and weatherhelm and eventually a broach give loads of warning that you’re pushing too hard. With straight hulls and little heel, those warning signs don’t really apply to multihulls.

In reality, however, there are a host of warning signals that it’s time to back-off; they’re just a bit different. Even then, there’s still a large safety margin before you get close to danger.

By way of reassurance, with the boat powered up on a beat, Hein, from Boats on Wheels, the boat’s owner, stood on the leeward hull and lent on the shrouds. Even as his feet got wet and the wind gusted at the top of Force 4, the boat didn’t bat an eyelid, thanks to the huge buoyancy of the floats.

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Even with a person on the leeward float the boat was extremely stable

On the water – sail trim

My first inclination was to point the boat as high upwind as possible, pin the sails in and go for height. Doing that resulted in a not-terrible boat speed of 5-6 knots and a good pointing angle.

Free off by a handful of degrees however, and ease the sails just a smidge, and the speed leapt up to 8-9 knots – over 50% more; a huge increase. So, don’t pinch. If you had a decent chartplotter on board, you could find your optimum speed to angle using velocity made good (VMG).

I was also tempted to pinch in the gusts, but it’s better to hold your course and let the speed increase until the main needs easing.

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On the wind, it’s time to get the boat fully powered up

If that’s the case, drop the main down the traveller an inch or two or ease some twist into the mainsail and it makes all the difference in the world, but not so far that the top battens fall away and invert – that really isn’t fast. Push too hard and the boat will slow down, largely from the drag of submerging the leeward float and crossbeams. If you’re still overpowered and the main is luffing, it’s time to reef. Downwind is different, but we’ll get onto that later.

After we put a reef in the main, our boat speeds upwind remained largely the same, and the boat was much happier. I came away feeling reassured that even a little trimaran like this would be pretty difficult to capsize, and there were always plenty of warning signs telling me to take my foot off the pedal a little.

Article continues below…

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Tacking and gybing a trimaran

Everyone knows that multihulls don’t tack as well as monohulls. Straight hulls and wide beam don’t lend themselves to turning, especially when coupled with the displacement and fixed keels of big cats. Trimarans are a little easier, with a single central daggerboard to act as a pivot, and one or other of the floats will generally be clear of the water. On the downside, light displacement means that there isn’t much momentum to keep you going through the turn and plenty of windage to stop you.

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On a trimaran the central daggerboard helps the boat to turn by providing a central pivot point that catamarans lack

Speed is your friend. Build speed up before the tack to give you as much momentum as possible. The helm needs to steer positively into and through the turn, and if necessary, keep the jib backed on the new windward side to help the bow through the wind. Don’t worry about scrubbing speed off, but you don’t want to get stuck in irons.

When it comes to gybing, speed is again key. The turning bit isn’t going to be an issue as you’ll be scooting along, but the faster you’re going, the less load there will be on the sails. The more you slow down, the more the true wind will pile up.

Trimaran sailing skills

Tacks took a bit of practice. It felt plain wrong to jab the tiller across the boat, slamming a big break on in the water but I ended up putting us through the tacks far too slowly, losing a lot of speed. A more aggressive approach worked better. On the Astus, the traveller was between me and the tiller, so the tiller extension needed to be swung around the stern behind the mainsheet onto the new side.

Similarly, old habits of controlling a gybe needed to be modified. With the asymmetric set, we were planing at well over 10 knots, and the ideal is to stay on the plane. Heading dead downwind and centring the main lead to a more violent manoeuvre than flying into the gybe as fast as possible and, as the boom was never that far out thanks to the apparent wind angle, it didn’t need much extra controlling.

Coming up onto the wind after the gybe helped the asymmetric around the front of the jib and to fill on the new side. Stay too deep and it’ll get blanketed by the main. Once we had built up some apparent wind, we could bear away again.

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You’ll be on a course deep downwind before you know it, hitting speeds in the double digits

Downwind in a trimaran

Upwind cruising may be fun in a multihull, but bearing away and going with the wind is what it’s all about. Easily-driven hulls, a generous sailplan and light weight mean you can be up and planing, leaving displacement boats wallowing in your wake.

The big difference comes from apparent wind. If you’re in a boat that can do 15 knots downwind in 20 knots of true wind, the resulting wind angles can really mess with your head.

To get going then, says Brian Thompson, ‘Use those leech tell-tales again when sailing downwind and reaching to set the correct twist through the mainsheet, and use the traveller to set the correct angle of the whole sail to the wind.’

As the wind and your speed builds, bear away and trim the main accordingly.

In theory, you shouldn’t need to ease the traveller at all, but you may need to if you want to sail deep downwind. As the gust fades, you’ll find the boat slows down, so you can come back up towards the wind a little to pick up some more breeze, and then bear away as you accelerate again.

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Bear away as the boat accelerates. Your course will be something of a slalom as you look to keep a consistent wind angle

This results in something of a ‘slalom’ course, and will also be accentuated if you’re sailing down waves, but that’s all quite normal for apparent wind sailing. Ultimately, you’re looking for a consistent apparent wind angle, even if the resulting wake isn’t straight.

It’s worth remembering that apparent wind reduces the felt effect of the wind, so you need a sailplan to suit the true, not apparent wind speed.

I found that the boat was more sensitive to having a balanced sailplan and trim downwind than upwind, largely because you’ve got almost double the canvas up, with the bowsprit as an extra lever. When weather helm built, I needed to ease the mainsheet to increase twist to depower so that I could bear away. I must admit, getting the boat balanced, sailing fast and light on the helm at 15 knots was something I came away feeling I needed more practice at.

Reviewing the images, I suspect the asymmetric was sheeted in too hard, with too much twist in the main.

lunghezza trimarano

Getting a float fully submerged is when it’s time to back off

On the water

Unfurling the gennaker worked best on a beam reach, giving plenty of airflow over the sail to help it fully unfurl. This was also roughly the fastest point of sail, ideal for getting up some speed for apparent wind sailing. We mostly had the sails set for a close reach, even when we were beyond 120º off the true wind on a broad reach.

It was possible to soak deeper downwind, but lose the apparent wind benefit downwind and our speed dropped off dramatically, prompting us to point a bit higher to find some more speed.

As the boat powered up, it paid to hold a slightly higher angle than I would have done in a monohull for the boat to properly take off and get up into double digit speeds – topping out at 15 knots. Lymington to Cowes would have taken us just half an hour at that speed. It’s easy to give yourself a heck of a beat back!

We were sailing on a pretty flat day, so didn’t have to contend with any waves to speak of. On the recent RTI this is what caused the capsizes of at least two multis, a sobering reminder that you need to sail much more conservatively in lumpier conditions.

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The bows want to point downwind, so a stern-first approach works with rather than against the boat

Coming alongside

A 650kg boat with no draught and plenty of windage feels dreadfully skittish when manoeuvring in confined spaces. Straight hulls with no forgiving curves and fragile-looking sharp bows make berthing tricky. You’ve got a couple of advantages on your side, however. In the Astus, the floats are at pontoon height making stepping off easy.

Whether you have an engine in each hull of a cat, or one in the central hull of a tri, there’s also a lot more leverage to play with to turn the boat and drive her on or off the pontoon. A steerable outboard gives you even more options.

If the boat has a lifting keel or daggerboards, put them down if there’s enough depth to give you a pivot and to resist drifting. Think about getting corners onto the pontoon, rather than putting the boat alongside. On tris, you won’t be able to get to the bow to fend off as it’s too narrow. You can rig a fender up forwards on a line, and two fenders are enough on the flat sides.

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Steering with the outboard towards the pontoon will drive the stern in more; steer away to drive the bow in more

Offshore wind

Coming onto the pontoon with wind blowing off, it worked well coming in stern first. If there’s a tide running, you’ll want to be heading into the tide, so find a spot down wind and down tide to start your approach so you come in at an angle.

On our first attempt we had a bit of tide under us to start with so we came in at a much steeper angle, almost 90º, although this worked out OK in the end.

The crew could then step ashore, taking a line from the stern quarter round a cleat.

Drive forwards against the line and the bow will obediently drive up towards the pontoon, bringing you flat alongside. Getting off was simple, releasing the bowline, and allowing the bow to swing out the before slipping the stern line.

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Coming in astern and stopping upwind of the berth meant the bows blew towards the pontoon far to quickly

Onshore wind

Getting onto and off a pontoon with onshore wind proved rather trickier. On our first attempt we came in stern first. The issue was that once we were just upwind of our desired berth and stopped, we lost steerage and the bow immediately blew off with alarming speed towards the pontoon.

Going ahead would only increase the force of the impact, while going astern only increased the bow’s sideways drift. I managed to back out without smashing the bow, but only just, and ended up awkwardly stern to the wind with the bows pointing at the pontoon.

On our second attempt we came in bows first but having aimed at the berth, I had to motor the stern to leeward to stop the bow hitting, making for a rather forceful coming alongside.

On take three, I came in forwards and began ferry gliding towards the berth early, keeping the bows to windward of the stern. Being able to steer with the outboard meant I could go ahead to keep the bow up, and go astern with the engine pulling the stern down toward the pontoon. In this way, it was possible to come in pretty well controlled and parallel to the berth.

lunghezza trimarano

To get out, motoring astern against a bow line pulled the entire boat clear before slipping the line

Leaving was a different proposition all together, as I didn’t want to drag the bow along the pontoon, or to drive hard onto it to spring off. Instead, we rigged a slip-line from the forward cross beam. Going astern against this, and then turning the engine towards the wind, I could pull the stern, and the rest of the boat, out and away from the pontoon.

Keeping power on astern, once we’d reached a decent angle, we slipped the line and went astern, finding steerage way almost at once, with the bow following obediently in our wake with more control than I had anticipated.

Whether the wind is blowing onto, or off the pontoon, you want the engine to be driving or pulling the boat off the pontoon with a line on the corner you are going away from. That way you avoid point-loading fine ends where it’s hard to fender.

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You’ll want a bridle to reduce swinging, but keep the pick up lines on the bow as backup

Anchoring and mooring a trimaran

While mooring a catamaran is complicated by the lack of a central bow, things should be simpler on a trimaran, and they are, mostly. Picking up a mooring buoy from the main hull bow with a low freeboard and dropping the pick-up line onto a cleat is easier even than a monohull.

The bow may be narrow, but for any lines that pass through a ring on the buoy, you still need to take it back to the same cleat to avoid chafe. That should be it, but windage from the two extra bows and the lack of keel mean the boat can dance merrily around the mooring buoy in a breeze.

lunghezza trimarano

Rig the bridle so the buoy sits to one side to stabilise the boat

In practice, we found that a trimaran benefits from a mooring bridle in the same way that a catamaran does. It can’t be rigged from the floats’ bows, as there are no mooring cleats, so a line passed around the outboard ends of the forward beams gave a pretty good angle, again with long lines passed through the mooring and back to the same side. The main pick-up lines stay as a safety backup.

The other trick is to rig the bridle asymmetrically so that the buoy sits to one side or the other, just enough to not be dead head to wind, making it much more stable in the wind.

On the plus side, the lack of draught or keel means that you’ll nearly always be lying head to wind, so the cockpit remains nice and sheltered whatever the tide’s doing.

We ran out of time on the day to try anchoring, but rigging a bridle, effectively a long snubber to a point on the anchor chain in a similar way wouldn’t be tricky.

If you needed not to swing, or to behave more like deeper boats nearby, hanging a bucket over the stern can help, or there’s always anchoring with a kedge, either out ahead in a V, or in line astern.

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Guillaume Verdier

A maxi trimaran for Edmond de Rothschild

Construction: 2016 Launch date: July 2017 Shipyard:  Multiplast / Lorima / Persico  Architects: Team Verdier (Guillaume Verdier, Morgane Schlumberger, Hervé Penfornis, Romaric Neyhousser), Bobby Kleinschmit (Team New Zealand), Bureau d’études Gitana (Antoine Koch, Marine Villard, Sébastien Sainson, Armand de Jacquelot, Julien Marcelet), Pure Design Skipper:  Sébastien Josse Racing program: solo-racing

@gitana-team.com

A trimaran measuring 32-metres in length and 23 metres in width, this ‘Ultime’ once again bears witness to the passion for innovation and performance, that serves as a daily guide to Ariane and Benjamin de Rothschild and the rest of the Gitana Team. They created the offshore racing stable in 2000, ensuring continuity with the team that has undertaken research and assisted with the development of the Multi70 Edmond de Rothschildl, since 2014.

Designed by Guillaume Verdier, alongside his team and the Gitana design office; the Maxi Edmond de Rothschild will be partly Archimedean boat (submerged hull) and flying craft. Gitana Team’s game plan is to develop the first flying maxi-multihull in offshore racing, by 2020.

@Gitana-team.com

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Vannes le 17 juillet 2017, chantier Multiplast, sortie et mise à l’eau du Maxi Edmond de Rothschild.

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@Eloi Stichelbaut/ GITANA SA

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Specifications:

  • Length: 32 m
  • Draught: 37 m
  • Displacement (weight) : 15.5 tons
  • Appendages  : T-Foil Float Rudders (2) / L-Shaped Foils (2)/ Daggerboard on the central Hull (1) / T-Foil rudder on central hull (1)
  • Sail area upwind: 450 m²
  • Sail area downwind: 650 m²

Related articles: 

“Gitana 17, it’s intense”

A maxi trimaran of a new generation

More projects ULTIMATES :

2018 – trimaran multi 70 – maserati, 2016 – maxi trimaran – gitana 17, 2016 – foiler – easy to fly, 2014 – 100 feet – comanche, 2012 – multi 50 pieds – arkema.

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The Awesomeness of Trimaran SVR-Lazartigue

  • By Dave Reed
  • Updated: November 2, 2021

Experience life onboard the giant, flying Ultime Trimaran SVR-Lazartigue as it prepares over the summer of 2021 for the start of the Transat Jacques Vabre.

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Are you really considering buying or building a small trimaran?

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The first one was called Small Trimarans and then More Small Trimarans followed later. They both include some interesting interviews, some with well known and reputable designers.

But as interesting a read as they are, they were missing the technical data, critical reviews and comparisons between the small trimarans under discussion. So when editor Joe suggested I might just be the most independent person qualified to do this, I decided to take on the task.

The result is a 22‑page Technical Report that not only compares many of the tris in Joe's books, but looks at the data for many more—a total of 20 in fact, all between 19' and 25' in length. Twelve (12) of these are reported on with a critical look at what they might offer YOU the potential buyer—all in numerous pages of text with color photos.

I also included two useful charts showing average building times and cost for tris of different lengths as well as a 2‑page spreadsheet with LOADS of data about each boat—things that will keep you busy for hours!

Although this had to be a somewhat personal look, I do bring 60+ years of sailing experience to it, as well as a lot of past boat building and designing as a qualified naval architect and engineer. I invite you to check some of the articles on this site to get a feel for whether you think I can help you or not. But just to make SURE I was on the right track with this, I first sent it out to five of the most reputable small multihull designers in the world who with just one exception, were not directly involved with the Small Trimaran boats—so could say what they wanted, quite independently.

So here below, also with a sample of the report, is what they wrote back to me, and I hope this will remove any doubt in your mind that the report is indeed worth reading.

My report is available at $9.00, complete with graphs and spreadsheets. On payment, you will receive the report by email, usually within 24 hours. It comes in PDF format, so that you can print out at home in full color. As one reviewer already remarked, this is about as close as one is likely to get to an independent consumer report on small tris!!

The 20 Small Trimarans included in this Report are the A21, Cardiff 21, Corsair Sprint, Day Tri 20, Discovery 20, Farrier F22, K24T, Hughes KH‑23 & KH‑24, Kolibri 23, Leneman L7, Magnum 21 & 21S, Ostlind Z65, Scarab 22 & 670, Spitfire 20, Tremolino, Trinado, and the Warren 23.

Here is what some very well-known designers had to say about this report:

Sample Pages

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François Gabart launches latest record-chasing trimaran

Helen Fretter

  • Helen Fretter
  • July 23, 2021

François Gabart, the solo non-stop around the world record holder, has unveiled a radical new Ultim giant trimaran with 'fighter jet' helm stations

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Francois Gabart, currently the fastest man to sail solo non-stop around the world , has unveiled his latest trimaran, the radical SVR-Lazartigue.

Previously codenamed ‘M101’ the trimaran has taken two and a half years to bring to fruition and yet again shifts the bar on what is considered radical in the giant foiling Ultim class.

The most obvious innovation for the new trimaran is that it has no ‘cockpit’. Instead of a covered or protected cockpit, François Gabart – and his crew on crewed record attempts or races – will sail the boat from inside. 

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Launch day for Francois Gabart’s new Ultim trimaran SVR-Lazartigue. Note the steering ‘pods’ in the middle of the flush cockpit roof Photo: Maxime Horlaville

Besides foil developments and the ongoing search for hydrodynamic improvements, François Gabart’s team has placed huge emphasis on the search for aerodynamic improvements. While some of the other Ultims have retro-fitted panels to improve aero efficiency, SVR-Lazartigue has been designed for flight from the outset.

Key to this is the integration of the cockpit and living space within the central hull. Within the 5m2 central hull there are three main areas: a ‘cockpit’ to manoeuvre and steer the boat, a small galley space, and storage for sails etc. The cabin roof sits almost flush with the main arms and trampoline for minimum drag.

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Giant curved foils and hydraulic controls on the SVR-Lazartigue Ultim Photo: Maxime Horlaville

Visibility forward is created via two fighter-jet style forward facing pods or ‘bubbles’, with a sliding access hatch – just like those on a military jet. The helmsman will be protected by a windscreen when sailing at high speeds – many Ultim skippers wear goggles to enable them to look into the wind and any spray.

François Gabart and his crew will only go on deck for essential repairs, and manoeuvres such as some sail changes. Like Alex Thomson’s most recent Hugo Boss IMOCA 60, which also employed an inside cockpit, there will be exterior cameras to view on deck and around the trimaran.

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The ‘fighter jet’ style helm stations on Francois Gabart’s new Ultim

Also like a fighter jet, the trimaran has adopted a radical new control system, developed in-house. Five times smaller than the usual 1.5m-diameter wheel, the new SVR-Lazartigue trimaran will be flown with a compact 30cm wheel tucked into the cockpit, along with other foili and sail controls.

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MerConcept founder and SVR-Lazartigue skipper Francois Gabart Photo: Maxime Horlaville

François Gabart explained: “It’s a new way to sail. It will probably rely more on sounds and movements. We will be able to go very quickly, while being protected from an apparent wind which can reach 120 kmph. 

“This configuration should allow us to go even faster on the water. Under certain conditions, the speed gain is going to be enormous. What is certain is that we can go 10 to 15% faster. Over a day, that can represent 200 km…”

The internal cockpit will also give Gabart or crew additional protection in the event of a capsize.

Additional aerodynamic gains have come from careful fairing of everything from the communications antennae to the propeller. Like Thomas Coville’s Sodebo , which moved the cockpit forward of the mast, the integral cockpit allows the boom to sit very flush to the deck, creating a very aerodynamic end-plating effect for improved sail efficiency.

Over 150,000 hours, some 40 months of work and around 20 local companies were involved in the project, which built by Gabart’s MerConcept company in Concarneau, where it was unveiled yesterday as launched this Thursday in Concarneau.

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Integral fairings on the forward beams and super slim hull forms for maximum aero and hydrodynamic efficiency Photo: Maxime Horlaville

Halfway through the build, Gabart’s sponsors of his winning Vendée Globe campaign and successful around the world solo record with his previous Ultime, Macif, announced that they would not continue to back him. However, he has since secured the backing of a French cosmetics firm, Kresk, and was able to complete the build.

Design was a joint project between VPLP and MerConcept’s in-house team, with GSEA Design and CDK Technologies working on the floats, front and rear arms, and foils. Multiplast built the central hull, C3 Technologies the centreboard and rudders. Sails are by North Sails for the sails with a Lorima mast.

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Low profile from bow to stern with the two ‘fighter jet’ pods just visible abaft the foil Photo: Maxime Horlaville

François Gabart said on launch day: “This boat is exclusively designed for offshore flight. We are living an extraordinary revolution and we do not know how far it can take us. Everything is possible and we have no limits, the trimaran SVR-Lazartigue embodies this approach. ”

After sea trials, Gabart’s first race with SVR-Lazartigue will be the transatlantic Transat Jaques Vabre, which starts from Le Havre on November 7th. Next year will be Route du Rhum, building up the single-handed around the world race for Ultims in 2023.

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Comparing trimarans & catamarans.

Trimarans tend to be more performance oriented than catamarans. In part, this is because it’s easier to design a folding trimaran, and as a result Farrier, Corsair, and Dragonfly trimarans had a disproportionate share of the market.

In spite of this and in spite of the fact that many are raced aggressively in windy conditions, capsizes are few, certainly fewer than in equivalent performance catamaran classes.  But when they do go over, they do so in different ways.

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Trimarans have greater beam than catamarans, making them considerably more resistant to capsize by wind alone, whether gusts or sustained wind. They heel sooner and more than catamaran, giving more warning that they are over powered. 

Waves are a different matter. The amas are generally much finer, designed for low resistance when sailing deeply immersed to windward. As a result, trimarans are more susceptible to broach and capsize when broad reaching at high speed or when caught on the beam by a large breaking wave.

In the first case, the boat is sailing fast and overtaking waves. You surf down a nice steep one, into the backside of the next one, the ama buries up to the beam and the boat slows down. The apparent wind increases, the following wave lifts the transom, and the boat slews into a broach. If all sail is instantly eased, the boat will generally come back down, even from scary levels of heel, but not always.

In the second case a large wave breaks under the boat, pulling the leeward ama down and rolling the boat. Catamarans, on the other hand, are more likely to slide sideways when hit by a breaking wave, particularly if the keels are shallow (or raised in the case of daggerboards), because the hulls are too big to be forced under. They simply get dragged to leeward, alerting the crew that it is time to start bearing off the wind.

Another place the numbers leave us short is ama design. In the 70s and 80s, most catamarans were designed with considerable flare in the bow, like other boats of the period. This will keep the bow from burying, right? Nope. When a hull is skinny it can always be driven through a wave, and wide flare causes a rapid increase in drag once submerged, causing the boat to slow and possibly pitchpole.

Hobie Cat sailors know this well. More modern designs either eliminate or minimize this flare, making for more predictable behavior in rough conditions. A classic case is the evolution of Ian Farrier’s designs from bows that flare above the waterline to a wave-piercing shape with little flare, no deck flange, increased forward volume, and reduced rocker (see photos page 18). After more than two decades of designing multihulls, Farrier saw clear advantages of the new bow form. The F-22 is a little faster, but more importantly, it is less prone to broach or pitchpole, allowing it to be driven harder.

Beam and Stability

The stability index goes up with beam. Why isn’t more beam always better? Because as beam increases, a pitchpole off the wind becomes more likely, both under sail and under bare poles. (The optimum length-to-beam ratios is 1.7:1 – 2.2:1 for cats and 1.2:1-1.8:1 for trimarans.) Again, hull shape and buoyancy also play critical roles in averting a pitchpole, so beam alone shouldn’t be regarded as a determining factor.

Drogues and Chutes

While monohull sailors circle the globe without ever needing their drogues and sea anchors, multihulls are more likely to use them. In part, this is because strategies such as heaving to and lying a hull don’t work for multihulls. Moderate beam seas cause an uncomfortable snap-roll, and sailing or laying ahull in a multihull is poor seamanship in beam seas.

Fortunately, drogues work better with multihulls. The boats are lighter, reducing loads. They rise over the waves, like a raft. Dangerous surfing, and the risk of pitchpole and broach that comes with it, is eliminated.  There’s no deep keel to trip over to the side and the broad beam increases the lever arm, reducing yawing to a bare minimum. 

Speed-limiting drogues are often used by delivery skippers simply to ease the motion and take some work off the autopilot. By keeping her head down, a wind-only capsize becomes extremely unlikely, and rolling stops, making for an easy ride. A properly sized drogue will keep her moving at 4-6 knots, but will not allow surfing, and by extension, pitch poling. 

For more information on speed limiting drogues, see “ How Much Drag is a Drogue? ” PS , September 2016.

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Trimaran Sailing Yacht Blue Coast 160®

A truly sensational appearance:

This BLUE COAST 160` sailing trimaran mega yacht with 3 decks is a fusion of architecture, design, comfort, performance, luxury, economy and technology. The 48m long carbon fibre trimaran yacht was designed by world-renowned naval architect Jean-Jacques Coste.

Description

The BLUE COAST 160` has extendable side hulls. At sea, the overall width of 23 m then offers very stable sailing even in rougher seas. With the side hulls retracted, the yacht, which is only 11 m wide, finds suitable berths in marinas and harbours. The shallow draft allows anchoring close to the most beautiful beaches.

Read here an article about this stunning trimaran from Multihulls World magazine no. 191.

The energy concept is also revolutionary: all the energy required on board comes from renewable sources. Of course, the latest battery management system (BMS) technology with state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries is part of the overall concept. This means that exclusive ports can be entered with renewable energy. Additional requested energy can be generated by an optional hybrid propulsion system.

The customised luxurious interior design is also by Jean-Jacques Coste. Of course, a garage for the owner's car "matching" the yacht has also been thought of; it can get on and off the yacht via the retractable platform.

With a twinkle in the eye, here is a note on the term "yacht" : At the christening of the new "Brittania" by Queen Elizabeth II, a journalist asked why a vessel of 126 m length with a crew of 236 and 5.769 GRT could be be called a "yacht"? A member of the Royal Family gave him a convincing answer: "The use of the term yacht does not depend on the type, length, weight or size of the crew of a vessel, but on the status of the owner!"

Design according to your preferences

The design of the Blue Coast 160 can be adapted to your ideas as you desire in terms of length, width, number and layout of cabins, interior fittings and furnishings.

Sailing trimaran blue coast 160 - view from rear with car garage

Manufacturing your Yacht

Under the constant supervision of Catamaris ®  and Jean-Jacques Coste, your BLUE COAST 160 sailing trimaran will be built in a certified shipyard in Europe with many years of experience in successfully manufacturing numerous luxury Super- Yachts, multihulls and trimarans.

Technical Specifications

Sailing trimaran blue coast 160 - layout flybridge

Request information

Please let us know your requirements so that we can provide you with the specific information you would like to receive.

Every BLUE COAST YACHT is unique. Jean-Jacques Coste's signature has made his designs timeless and elegant while maximising performance, comfort and luxury.

For more information about our trimarans click here, about cookies (ext:cat).

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How do you judge the success of an ocean cruising yacht? You can tell a lot from where you see them and where you don’t. It’s also instructive to look at the builder’s order book. If you buy one now, how long will you have to wait for delivery? Another indicator is how well (or poorly) they hold their value on the secondhand market. By any of these measures, Neel Trimarans is absolutely nailing it.

You’ll often see Neel tris anchored in remote parts of the Hebrides and far-flung atolls of the South Pacific but they’re rarely seen in crowded, mainstream cruising destinations like the Ionian, the Virgin Islands or the Solent. Depending on which model of Neel tri you want, you’ll probably have to wait at least eight months and possibly up to two years. And a survey of brokerage websites suggests that there isn’t a great deal of difference between the asking price of a two-year-old Neel and the cost of a new one.

Despite the disruptions of the Covid pandemic, the La Rochellebased shipyard is still steadily growing. ‘We built about 30 boats last year,’ says Neel founder Eric Bruneel, ‘and this year we expect to build 45 to 50.’ The latest, smallest model, the Neel 43, is coming off the production line at a rate of one boat every two weeks and demand is still outstripping supply.

That said, due to the shipyard’s recently increased capacity, now is a good time to order a new Neel as the waiting list, at the time of writing, is shorter than it’s been in years.

Neel’s new Leen power tri have the same core values and designer Bernard Nivelt owns one...

Neel’s new Leen power tri have the same core values, and designer Bernard Nivelt owns one…

Neel is one of just a few brands that have carefully positioned themselves between these two extremes. ‘Where other multihulls have to choose between performance and comfort, a Neel combines both,’ says Charline Picon, an Olympic gold medallist the the RS-X class, who knows a thing or two about performance and is Godmother of the Neel 51. ‘We’re definitely performance-oriented but it’s absolutely not about racing,’ says Eric Bruneel, pointing out that while his yachts have performed very well indeed in ocean passage events like the ARC and ARC+, these are competitive cruising rallies rather than races.

Bruneel has a strong personal racing pedigree, having won his class in the 2004 OSTAR and 2005 Fastnet aboard the 50ft Trilogic, which he built himself, plus a second place in the 2006 Route du Rhum and various exploits in bleeding-edge C Class cats. He also has a lifetime of experience at the forefront of multihull production with 27 years at Fountaine-Pajot, including 10 years as managing director, before he left to found his own shipyard. In the decade since the first Neel trimaran sailed out of La Rochelle’s historic harbour, his boats have earned widespread respect among experienced ocean sailors.

So why choose a tri? There are several reasons why three hulls are better than two, especially if you’re sailing offshore. First and foremost: weight distribution, which is far more important in a multihull than a monohull. The central hull of a trimaran is the ideal place to put all the heavy stuff, Bruneel explains, and having a single engine amidships is much better for stability than twin engines at the aft ends of two hulls. ‘It changes everything, all the dynamics – like a skater in a spin, moving her arms in and out to control her speed,’ he says. ‘Catamarans have to carry weight in all four corners and that’s why the motion of a trimaran is better, much softer, at sea.’ The pitching motion is less pronounced when sailing closehauled and on a beam reach there’s less of a tendency for the boat to rock back and forth from hull to hull.

Another advantage is better performance in light airs, Bruneel says, which directly translates to more enjoyment for the owner and crew. The combined wetted surface of a trimaran’s main hull and one float is smaller than the wetted area of a cat with both of its hulls still immersed, and the trimaran is designed to sail with a small amount of heel, rather than bolt upright, which helps the sails hold their shape in very light winds. Also, a single rudder with a simple direct linkage gives a better ‘feel’ to the helm than a twin-rudder setup, particularly upwind, and saves weight in the stern where it has a significant effect on the boat’s fore-and- aft pitching motion.

The front end of a Neel 65’s bridgedeck has two separate lounge seating areas, either side of the yacht’s main nav station.

The front end of a Neel 65’s bridgedeck has two separate lounge seating areas, either side of the yacht’s main nav station.

Neel’s ‘cockloon’, an original concept by Michel Joubert, turns the saloon and cockpit into a single indoor/outdoor space.

Neel’s ‘cockloon’, an original concept by Michel Joubert, turns the saloon and cockpit into a single indoor/outdoor space.

One of the Neel tris’ most useful characteristics is the ability to sail deeper angles downwind than most multihulls

One of the Neel tris’ most useful characteristics is the ability to sail deeper angles downwind than most multihulls

Other key features include a cutter-rigged mast stepped amidships (long before it became fashionable to bring the mast step aft) with a big genoa and a working jib with a much lower centre of effort than the part-furled genoa of a sloop-rigged yacht; plenty of lateral resistance to ensure good upwind VMG – equivalent to a monohull racer-cruiser of similar length in almost any conditions – without needing a daggerboard; and the ability to sail efficiently downwind at deeper angles than most other cruising multihulls can manage, which is a distinct advantage for trade wind sailing.

Exotic materials are used only sparingly in the boats’ construction, for good reason. ‘We use unidirectional carbon only in crucial places like the beams and deck,’ Bruneel explains. ‘For long-distance cruising you don’t want carbon in the hulls because even a small hit can do a lot of damage to the boat, and we don’t need it because our boats are light enough without it.’ A carbon rig with square-top mainsail is available, which gives better performance than the standard alloy rig in light airs, but Bruneel says that in most conditions there isn’t much difference between the two rigs.

Almost all part of the boats, even the interiors, are vacuum-infused GRP foam sandwich using materials that can easily be recycled when the boat eventually reaches the end of its life. Social aspects of sustainability are taken equally seriously and the gender pay gap within the shipyard is actually tilted in favour of female employees. Environmental concerns are paramount even in the new range of Leen motor yachts. ‘I couldn’t ignore that even if I wanted to,’ Bruneel says. ‘My design engineers would simply refuse to produce a dirty boat.’

Andrei Dragos

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Join the SVR-Lazartigue trimaran adventure alongside skipper François Gabart and French cosmetics group Kresk.

The svr-lazartigue trimaran   belongs to the new generation of flying boats, where aerodynamics are just as important as hydrodynamics., the development of new technologies in all areas of design make the svr- lazartigue trimaran a unique and revolutionary boat..

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François Gabart

Tom laperche.

Tom Laperche, 25, will be at the helm of the boat for the Arkea Ultim Challenge, a solo non-stop round-the-world race, in January 2024, just a few weeks after the Transat Jacques Vabre double-handed transatlantic race in which the two sailors will team up again.

The skipper embodies values that are specific to the brands SVR, Lazartigue and Fillmed: progress and performance with a will affirmed to take into account the societal and environmental challenges.

The result of 40 months' of teamwork, the svr-lazartigue trimaran combines sleek lines and a futuristic design. equipped with cutting-edge flight systems and piloting softwares, this giant of the seas is capable of high-speed flight around the planet..

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Présidé par Didier Tabary, féru de voile et amoureux de la mer, le Groupe Kresk a souhaité que cette aventure maritime soit accompagnée d’engagements concrets en faveur de la protection des océans au travers la création de Kresk 4 Oceans.

You asked for it: and we heard you.

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Go behind the scenes of our latest route du rhum with the documentary ''bien accompagné''..

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François Gabart et Tom Laperche sont arrivés cette nuit à Fort-de-France à bord du Trimaran-SVR-Lazartigue, arrivant ainsi sur la deuxième marche du podium après 14 jours 15 heures 5...

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Le 23 juillet 2023, à📍Cherbourg-en-Cotentin : le @trimaransvrlazartigue franchissait la ligne d’arrivée de la @rolexfastnetracecherbourg en première position, après 👊1j 8h 38m et 27 secondes : un nouveau record pour cette course🚀. À...

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📣Le BRACELET KRESK 4 OCEANS est (enfin) disponible à la vente ! Suite à la @route_du_rhum, vous avez été nombreux à nous contacter pour vous procurer t-shirts, casquettes, bonnets et...

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16 Best Trimarans For Sailing Around The World (And a Few For Daysailing)

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Trimarans are growing in popularity worldwide, due to their light construction and high stability these multihulls are even faster than catamarans. Trimarans are still one of the lesser-known boat types so in this article ill be checking out some of the most popular models.

The best trimarans include: 

  • The Neel 43 
  • The Neel 47 
  • Dragonfly 28 
  • The Pulse 600 
  • Corsair 37 

These tris are built with your safety in mind while also packing powerful speed and a wide array of comfort features to optimize your sailing experience , some are even foldable making them possible to load on a trailer and transport to the sailing destination of your choosing.

In this article, I have created a list of the 16 best trimarans in the market and their unique features. You’ll also learn the best options for different purposes such as circumnavigation, weekend sailing, racing, and more. 

Table of Contents

What Is a Trimaran?

lunghezza trimarano

A trimaran is a multi hulled sailboat with three individual hulls; the main hull ( vaka ) and a pair of outrigger hulls ( amas ). These smaller outrigger hulls are attached to the main hull using beams. 

While trimarans have a rich history dating back nearly four millennia, these types of sailboats have only gained popularity in the late 1900s and early 2000s. 

Trimarans are primarily used as personal boats for sailing enthusiasts or racing. These sailboats draw their versatility from their lightweight design, making them faster and easier to handle at sea when compared to single-hulled boats (monohulls). Additionally, the three hulls also contribute to better stability, making it very hard to capsize (although more likely than a cat according to this study)

Trimarans come in various sizes, and some can be as small as 19 feet (5.8 meters) in length, while others go up to 60 feet (18meters). They’re also used for different purposes. Most trimarans are used for racing and recreational purposes, although some units are still used as ferries.

As with all things, to find out which is the best we need to understand what it will be used for. There is a big difference in requirements between a boat used for day sailing compared to offshore around the world sailing.

The list below highlights the best trimarans for different purposes.

Best Trimarans For Cruising, Liveaboard and Sailing Around The World

The Neel 43 is a French trimaran best suited for cruising. Its key features include: 

  • Easy maneuverability on the open sea by only a small number of crew members 

This unit is also built for comfort, ideal for more extended travels. This 43-feet (13-meter) trimaran is also made with recyclable and bio-sourced materials, highlighting the manufacturer’s commitment to environmental consciousness. 

This trimaran has a base price of  €329,000 excluding VAT. This translates to approximately $370,138. 

2.Neel 47 Possibly The Best

Named the best full-size multihull for 2020, the Neel 47 is a strong contender for one of the best trimarans in the market. This 47-foot (14.3-meter) long trimaran features optimized exterior and interior ergonomics for a unique design and look. 

Still on design, the Neel 47 is ideal for couples looking to take a weekend off or spend some time as liveaboard. It has a spacious owner’s cabin and two bedrooms. It also features a spacious living room and kitchen and is optimized to ensure comfort for a couple. 

The Neel 47 also has two basic guest cabins so your friends or children can tag along on your sailing adventure. Accordingly, this unit is ideal for those looking to explore the sea for the sheer joy of sailing. 

The Neel 47 comes at a 571,139 euro ( $643,600 ) price tag, excluding VAT. 

3. Rapido 60 The Fast and Comfortable Circumnavigator

The Rapido 60 offers a blend of performance, safety, and luxury, making it one of the best options for bluewater sailing. Measuring 59.3 feet (18 meters) in length, the Rapido 60 is an imposing unit. It’s made from lightweight sandwiches and carbon materials that provide speed and strength, allowing it to stand up to strong ocean currents. 

The Rapido 60 also has spacious living spaces and is built for comfort at all points of the sail. Its design also optimizes safety. While it’s an ideal option for circumnavigating, it’s also an excellent choice for racing due to its speed. 

This is also the same boat that The Youtube channel La Vagabond just purchased.

The Rapido 60 retails at $1,400,000 . 

4. Rapido 40

The Rapido 40 measures 39.4 feet (12 meters) in length and is ideal for cruising around the world. The Rapido 40 features twin “C” foils, which provide added lift, enhancing its speed and performance whether you are sailing downwind or upwind. 

Because it has C foils, this trimaran doesn’t have a central daggerboard, increasing interior space. Accordingly, it’s an excellent option for couples looking to cruise and enjoy great performances .

The Rapido 40 is made from high-tech all-carbon materials for a lightweight yet sturdy design. This material is also used for the countertops and furniture, and the cork flooring adds a touch of style.

This trimaran retails for $595,000 , making it a cheaper option than the Rapido 60. 

5. Dragonfly 40

The Dragonfly 40 measures 40 feet (12 meters) in length. It features high-comfort standards, making it one of the best trimarans in the market for taking your family for a cruise. Because of its larger size, it has a better capacity, being capable of accommodating six to eight people, so you can bring your family and friends along. 

It’s easy to navigate and extremely safe. With a maximum speed of 24 knots (44.5 km/h), this trimaran also provides fast speeds to make your cruise even more exhilarating. 

The Dragonfly 40 retails from €509,000 exclusive of VAT, which rounds up to $572,000 . 

6. Dragonfly 32

The Dragonfly 32 is a high-performance cruiser. Like the Dragonfly 28, this unit features a contemporary design for racing. This trimaran can accommodate five to seven crew members. 

Although slightly longer than the Dragonfly 28 with its 32-foot (9.8-meter) length, the Dragonfly 32 has a max speed of 23+ knots (42.6+ km/h), making it one of the fastest trimarans for racing. This unit also has comfortable accommodation, which makes it an ideal option for a weekend cruise with family and friends. 

The Dragonfly 32 has a base price of $350,000 . 

7. Corsair 37

Thanks to a variable draft with a retractable rudder, the Corsair 37 is an ideal choice for shallow water exploration. This 37-foot (11.3-meter) long trimaran features advanced foam-cored construction designed for safety, making it virtually unsinkable. 

The carbon hulls minimize weight, this makes for a lightweight ocean exploration sailboat with blistering speeds. One of its selling points is that this trimaran has previously been used for Arctic expeditions, possibly marking it as one of the better options for circumnavigation and offshore sailing in the northern waters. 

This trimaran has a base price of $189,000 but can go up to $204,125 .

Best Trimarans For Day/Weekend Sailing

8. dragonfly 28.

The Dragonfly 28 is a 28-feet (8.75-meter) long sailboat that can accommodate up to five people. It comes in two versions: 

  • Touring version: This version is ideal for families.  
  • Performance version: This is built to provide optimal performance for the sports enthusiast within you. 

It clocks a maximum speed of 22+ knots (22+ km/h) and is beam-folded. It’s an excellent option if you want a high-performance, comfortable yet smaller unit for your day or weekend cruise. 

The Dragonfly 28 starts at  €188,280 inclusive of VAT, which comes to around $211,600. 

9. Dragonfly 25

Like other trimarans under the Dragonfly brand, this 25-foot (7.62-meter) trimaran is great for both racing and short term cruising. However, this high-performance boat delivers easy handling, making it perfect for couples looking to take a ride out over the weekend and seasoned sailors looking for an exhilarating racing adventure. 

The Touring version features a lightweight build and offers comfort and accommodation to keep you, and the few guests you can fit, comfortable during the ride. This trimaran also has a Sport version, which is optimized for racing. 

The Dragonfly 25 retails from EUR 86,800 . 

10. Pulse 600

The Pulse 600 trimaran is a compact sailboat. It’s made from lightweight, carbon-reinforced construction and vacuum-formed materials for optimal speed. This trimaran is an ideal option if you are looking for speed. 

It also features ample deck space, greater stability, and volume than most trimarans of similar size and build. 

This trimaran measures 19.8 feet (6 meters) in length and can be sailed single-handedly by one person with minimal effort. The Pulse 600 has a base price of $38,800 , which places it in the lower price range. 

The F-22 is one of the smaller trimarans in the market. Developed in New Zealand, the F-22 is a folding trimaran built for speed. The hulls are made from narrow fiberglass tied together using fiberglass beams and aluminum, minimizing bulk while optimizing speed. 

The F-22 is roomy and is not as pricey as other models in the market. This trimaran has two main versions: 

12. 2019 Weta Trimaran

The 2019 Weta trimaran is a 14.5-foot (4.4-meter) trimaran featuring a carbon frame, centerboard, rudder foil, and rudder shock. The hull is made from fiberglass and foam. The Weta is built for strength and speed based on these lightweight materials. 

The 2019 Weta trimaran is easy to sail and is worth considering whether you want to take a quiet sail, race with your friends, or take kids to a sailing lesson. It has a simple design and is easy to set up independently. Thanks to its collapsible design, this trimaran is easily stored away with minimal space demands. 

13. WindRider 17

The 17.4-foot (5.3-meter) WindRider 17 is one of the more versatile trimarans in the market. It packs high performance for a low cost. This trimaran has a light rotating mast to boost performance, and a full-battened mainsail optimizes visibility. 

This sailboat is made from rotomolded polyethylene, which is more durable than fiberglass and demands less maintenance.

The WindRider 17 has a comfortable interior and can fit six adults. This is an ideal choice for social sailing for a couple or a family and friends. It’s easy to ride, and a shallow draft allows easy maneuverability. 

14. Astus 22.5

If you’re looking for something small but still comfortable, this 22.5-foot trimaran is for you. Built for speed and maneuverability, the Astus 22.5 has optional foils to optimize speed. The modern design, coupled with the spacious interior, can fit up to four beds. Accordingly, this trimaran is suited for family outings. 

This trimaran also has a foldable design, collapsing to only 16 feet (4.9 meters) for easy storage. 

15. Multi 23 Trimaran 

The Multi 23 trimaran has a contemporary design, featuring a vinyl ester and PVC foam core construction. The section below the waterline is made of solid glass for a sturdy base.

The beams are made of lightweight carbon, and the trimaran features a 33-foot (10-meter) aluminum rotating wing mast for optimal harnessing of the wind. While ideal for weekend excursions with family, once rigged with the asymmetrical spinnaker will get your heart pumping.

This trimaran packs high performance at a lower cost than most other options in the market. It’s a good choice if you are looking for a high-performing unit without spending an arm and a leg. 

16. Challenger Class Trimaran

The Challenger Trimaran 15 is the best choice for persons with disabilities. It’s designed to provide disabled sailors an opportunity to explore their passion for sailing without worrying about aspects like safety or operation. 

A man named Geoff Hold circumnavigated the British Isles in 2007, becoming the first disabled person to achieve this feat. He had quadriplegia. 

Living up to its name, the Challenger can withstand harsh weather conditions while blending performance with speed. 

Final Thoughts 

Admittedly, no trimaran is best for everyone. But whether you are looking to race with your friends, take your loved ones or friends for a cruise over the weekend, or circumnavigate the ocean, you can rest assured that these lightweight trimarans will deliver speed, safety, and comfort to make it worth your while. 

These brands are innovatively designed and feature intricate safety mechanisms that make them virtually unsinkable. Give them a shot and begin your ocean adventure. 

  • Basco Boating: A Comprehensive Guide & Introduction to Trimaran Yachts
  • TheBoatAPP: New Trumarans: Which are the Best Ones
  • Corsair Marine: Corsair 37
  • Dragonfly: Dragonfly 28
  • Rapido Trimarans: Rapido 60
  • Neel Trimarans: Neel 43
  • Yachting World: World’s Collect Yachts: Maxi Trimaran MACIF
  • Yachting Monthly: Dragonfly 28 Performance
  • Rapido Trimarans: Rapido 40
  • Dragonfly: Dragon 32
  • Dragonfly: Dragonfly 40
  • Yachting World: Dragonfly 40 yacht tour: This cruising trimaran can do 24 knots
  • Dragonfly: Dragonfly 25
  • NauticExpo: Dragonfly 25
  • Yachtworld: Corsair 37 boats for sale
  • Cruising World: Neel 47 Trimaran: Best Full-Size Multihull0
  • Neel Trimaran: Neel 47
  • Multihull Solutions: NEEL 47 Boat Review | Cruising World
  • Yacht World: 2022 Neel 47 for sale
  • Farrier International: F-22
  • Weta Marine: The Boat
  • WindRider: WindRider 17 Trimaran Sailboat 
  • Astus Boats: Astus 22.5
  • Boat-specs: Multi 23
  • National Maritime Museum Cornwall: Challenger Trimaran #1 – BC26

Owner of CatamaranFreedom.com. A minimalist that has lived in a caravan in Sweden, 35ft Monohull in the Bahamas, and right now in his self-built Van. He just started the next adventure, to circumnavigate the world on a Catamaran!

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Westerly 31 longbow, northshore yachts southerly 115 mk i, quorning boats dragonfly 28 sport, newick three cheers mk4, quorning boats dragonfly 920, f3 trimaran foiler, neel 45 evolution, corsair 970, perché fidarsi di noi, 59 barche vendute grazie a noi, cos'è un trimarano, caratteristiche di un trimarano.

Degno rappresentante dei multiscafi, il trimarano è un'imbarcazione a vela composta da tre scafi , di cui quello centrale è il più grande per dimensioni e peso. Quelli situati su entrambi i lati dello scafo centrale sono galleggianti che offrono all'imbarcazione maggiore stabilità, aumentandone la larghezza. Il sartiame (che permette alla barca di essere spinta dal vento e manovrabile) si trova in corrispondenza dello scafo centrale. Per evitare che il trimarano si muova lateralmente, il piano antideriva è fornito da derive situate sui galleggianti o da una deriva centrale sollevabile.

L'interesse di questo multiscafo, come anche del catamarano, è quello di guadagnare in velocità: gli scafi sono più sottili di quelli di un monoscafo, il che riduce l'attrito all'acqua e ne aumenta la stabilità. Al contrario dei catamarani, i trimarani regalano emozioni forti, che sono la gioia degli appassionati di velocità. Di conseguenza l'assetto, problematico nei monoscafi, è abbastanza stabile, con oscillazioni di pochi gradi.

Il volume abitabile di un trimarano, concentrato esclusivamente nello scafo centrale, è ridotto rispetto a quello di un catamarano o di un monoscafo, il che significa che si preferisce acquistare quest'ultimo piuttosto che un trimarano se si vuole essere a proprio agio e vivere a bordo in maggiore comfort. I galleggianti possono talvolta contenere dei vani portaoggetti.

I trimarani sono utilizzati principalmente per la nautica da diporto o per le regate . è possibile imbarcarsi su un trimarano sia per crociere costiere che offshore, trascurando leggermente il comfort.

I trimarani saranno in grado di convincere anche il più reticente di noi: basta trovare il nostro trimarano ideale.

I vantaggi dei trimarani

Navigare a bordo di un trimarano è un sogno che diventa realtà. I trimarani presentano numerosi vantaggi:

  • basso rischio di capovolgimento : a bordo di un trimarano, questo rischio è limitato. Si crea un equilibrio tra la potenza di un vento troppo forte e il galleggiante coinvolto, che affonderà in acqua, riducendo così la velocità dell'imbarcazione ed evitando che si capovolga. Tuttavia, il rischio di capovolgimento permane, soprattutto in caso di vento forte o di mare mosso. Se ciò accadesse, il trimarano non affonderebbe e si trasformerebbe in una zattera, per questo il trimarano ha la reputazione di essere un'imbarcazione sicura;
  • Il piacere al timone: la stragrande maggioranza dei trimarani è piacevole da guidare perché risponde bene ai comandi;
  • il pescaggio poco profondo: poiché un trimarano non ha la chiglia, il pescaggio è ridotto.

Inizi a vedere i trimarani sotto una nuova luce? Trova il tuo trimarano usato tra i nostri annunci su Band of Boats e parti alla conquista delle onde.

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Principi e teoria degli scafi: dislocamento e stazza

di Sacha Giannini

Principi e teoria degli scafi: dislocamento e stazza

Nautica Report

  • 16/04/2018 07:00

“Un corpo immerso in un fluido riceve una spinta verticale dal basso verso l’alto uguale per intensità al peso del fluido spostato“.

E' la fisica, con il Principio di Archimede , che ci fa capire come fanno a galleggiare le navi, ed in generale tutte le imbarcazioni.

Dal punto di vista progettuale, i due parametri principali che hanno determinato un’evoluzione estetica, stilistica e tecnica delle imbarcazioni, soprattutto in questi ultimi 2 secoli, sono il dislocamento e la stazza.

Uno scafo dislocante è quello che è più vicino a questo principio e al concetto di “sostentamento”, ed è come se fosse… un buco nell’acqua che sostiene lo scafo!!

Il dislocamento di una nave è la massa dell'acqua da essa spostata, il cui peso, moltiplicato per il peso specifico dell’acqua ( variabile ), è uguale al peso totale della nave stessa.  

lunghezza trimarano

La peculiarità di uno scafo dislocante è di avere una velocità teorica massima di avanzamento, detta anche critica, data dalla formula Vm = 1,35 √(L) dove L è la lunghezza al galleggiamento dello scafo espressa in piedi e Vm la velocità espressa in nodi.

Il compito del progettista è quindi quello di ottimizzare le forme di carena su questi parametri, velocità e lunghezza . Non ci sono limiti di peso ma l'unica limitazione è la velocità raggiungibile legata alla lunghezza sull’acqua.

Quindi una barca dislocante per essere piu' veloce deve aumentare la lunghezza.

Il dislocamento , definito come peso della nave, è il vero parametro basilare della progettazione, quello che incide su tutte le caratteristiche salienti di uno scafo: velocità, abitabilità, facilità e conducibilità di governo.

La stazza , intesa come la "capacità" interna di una barca è misurata in volumi.

IL DISLOCAMENTO

Il peso di una barca dunque influenza molti parametri che interagiscono con la navigazione e ne determinano le condizioni di spostamento.

Da sempre due opinioni contrapposte si sono alternate su quale tipo di imbarcazione, pesante o leggera , potesse dare il meglio in navigazione a vela, per facilità di conduzione, velocità e sicurezza per viaggi a lungo raggio.  

lunghezza trimarano

Il costruttore, oggi, si trova davanti alla necessità sempre crescente di produrre scafi performanti e veloci con una riduzione del peso complessivo della struttura, senza naturalmente sacrificare robustezza e sicurezza, adottando tecniche costruttive e materiali tecnologicamente avanzati.

Ci sono quindi molte altre decisioni che devono esser prese e che influenzano il risultato finale, la qualità costruttiva, l’attenzione ai dettagli e la capacità di costruire interni adatti per le esigenze di ogni singolo armatore.

Il concetto di dislocamento ( o leggero o pesante ) e di stabilità è stato modificato negli ultimi dieci anni grazie all’impiego, come nella produzione di serie, di materiali compositi, le fibre di carbonio o di kevlar e l’introduzione di vele performanti.  

lunghezza trimarano

1880 - Plank on edge ( scafo dislocante )

Le nuove tecnologie hanno infatti permesso la realizzazione di scafi a dislocamento leggero o addirittura ultraleggero (ULDB) altrettanto robusti e sicuri dei dislocamenti pesanti. Se è vero che le barche si vendono a chili, e anche vero che quelle di laminato pieno costano oggi assai meno di quelle di sandwich.

Un dislocamento leggero nella media è più facile da portare perché ha bisogno di meno vela e perché manovra meglio. Teoricamente ha meno abitabilità di un dislocamento pesante, in quanto presenta minori volumi in carena e una minore capacità di stivaggio, cammina meglio alle andature portanti, ma in bolina può battere e piantarsi sull'onda, specie contro quella corta del Mediterraneo .Al contrario una barca pesante con poco vento non sarà mai performante e quindi necessiterà sempre di un motore potente ed un armo velico altrettanto sviluppato.

Un dislocamento medio-pesante può mediare i limiti tecnici di una o dell’altra impostazione, con linee d’acqua filanti ed un baglio massimo non troppo arretrato . La cosa importante è che lo scafo si sviluppi in modo corretto e proporzionale, privilegiando la navigazione a vela e una buona stabilità di rotta. Il tutto dipende ovviamente dall’uso che se ne deve fare e dal tipo di navigazione prevista.<<<  

lunghezza trimarano

“Skimming dish” e “Plank of edge” Ibrida fusione tra i due tipi

Le tre barche illustrate rappresentavano l’estremo delle tendenze progettuali della fine del XIX secolo. La prima, barca americana ( “Skimming dish” -   Disco che sfiora l’acqua ) larga e piatta, e la seconda, barca inglese ( “Plank of edge” - Tavola di costa ) stretta e fonda. La terza ( “Filou” ) è una fusione tra i due tipi che venne proposta dai tedeschi sempre in quegli anni.

«… le barche si fanno secondo il materiale e il peso, non è che uno ha una forma e questa la può adattare a tutto: secondo il peso viene fuori la forma... ». Carlo Sciarrelli  

lunghezza trimarano

La stazza rappresenta la somma dei volumi degli spazi interni , ermeticamente chiusi all'acqua, di una nave o di un natante o di un galleggiante di qualunque tipo. La sua unità di misura è la tonnellata di stazza , un'unità di volume corrispondente a 100 piedi cubi (2,832 metri cubi ).

Il metodo di calcolo e misurazione è stato aggiornato con l'entrata in vigore (1969 ) della normativa internazionale dell'IMO  

lunghezza trimarano

La Stazza (fr.: jauge ; ingl.: rating ), pur mantenendo sempre un significato di "grandezza" e di "capacità" si divide nel tipo Legale come indice della potenzialità commerciale della nave e quindi di tassazione, o nel tipo Rating , concettualmente diversa e intesa come classificazione speciale del naviglio a vela da regata.

In entrambi i casi non esprime la proiezione di un volume percepibile ed intuitivo come tutti noi potremmo immaginare, ma rappresenta una misura convenzionale come risultato di calcoli algebrici ( spesso con riserva di segretezza _ vedi rating Irc, Orc… ) in un complesso formulario empirico di operazioni di misurazione e rilevamenti…per arrivare alla fine ad un numero !

La stazza lorda ( GT Gross tonnage ) comprende tutti i volumi interni della nave

La stazza netta ( NT Net Tonnage ) corrisponde alla somma dei volumi di tutti gli spazi interni della nave utilizzabili per scopi commerciali ( carico utile trasportabile )

La stazza di regata ( rating ) è stata inventata per consentire di valutare correzioni di tempo o di cammino e far gareggiare imbarcazioni a vela diverse per potenzialità e dimensioni mettendole in condizioni di parità in una stessa regata.

La fisica ci insegna che maggiori sono le dimensioni  di una barca a vela, maggiore è la velocità che è in grado di sviluppare e la sua possibilità di tagliare per prima un eventuale traguardo !

Quindi nel tentativo  di compensare le minori capacità di correre di una barca rispetto all’ altra, si pensò in un recente passato di inventare una formula per rappresentare e “numerare” la capacità di andar forte di una barca. In funzione dei “buchi” ( restrizioni non previste ) presenti nelle varie formule, si sviluppò una rincorsa nei progetti degli yacht per cercare di aggirare le gabbie imposte dai vari regolamenti ( “fatta la legge, trovato l’inganno” e come dire “fatta la carena, trovato l'escamotage” ).

L’abilità dei progettisti favorì a volte gli slanci, a volte la superficie velica, a volte il pescaggio e così via. Le linee di carena, una volta teorizzate, venivano quindi compresse, piegate e infine deformate per essere incastrate proprio su queste regole .  

lunghezza trimarano

Esempio di una formula di rating IMS ( ex IOR ) per il calcolo di R

Tutto ciò è nato durante le prime regate veliche in Inghilterra alla fine del 1700 accorgendosi che tanto più uno yacht era lungo, tanto più era veloce e vincente. Per evitare una corsa al gigantismo e per consentire anche agli yacht più piccoli di competere fu introdotto un metodo di compensazione per tenere in considerazione le dimensioni degli scafi diversi durante una regata.

Ricordiamo che nel passato e fin dagli inizi del primo millennio, le navi erano tassate secondo la capacità di carico , misurata secondo il numero di barili che potevano caricare. In Inghilterra, nel XIV secolo, il barile standard con cui veniva trasportato il vino veniva chiamato tun .

Il numero di “Tun” che una nave poteva contenere veniva chiamato tunnage (tonnellaggio) .

Misurando il volume di una tonnellata dei più diversi generi trasportati, dalle stoffe al vino, e vedendo che la media dei volumi tendeva ai 100 piedi cubi ( 2,832 metri cubi ), venne stabilita l'unita di misura: Tonnellata di stazza = 2,832 metri cubi

Questa misura si rendeva necessaria perché le navi in legno erano pezzi unici realizzate dai maestri d'ascia e ognuna aveva forma e capacità  diverse per cui era difficile stabilire quanto la nave poteva trasportare, misura necessaria per le tassazioni e le assicurazioni dell'epoca.

Il concetto di stazza nasce quindi da diverse premesse , non certo di competizione e di appartenenza ad una classe di regata o di rating o per introdurre i tempi compensati o l’abbuono ( vantaggio ), ma in base alla stazza, come ancora oggi, con criteri e calcoli diversi, venivano stabilite la maggior parte della tasse e delle tariffe cui erano soggette le navi ( premi assicurazioni, tasse portuali, tariffe visite RINA, tasse di ancoraggio, tariffe passaggi fiumi e canali Panama e Suez )

Nel 1854 venne varata la prima formula studiata espressamente per gli yacht a vela da regata. Era la famosa “Stazza del Tamigi” , nota come T.M. (Thames Measurement).

Nel corso degli anni si scoprì che la formula penalizzava troppo la larghezza spingendo alla progettazione di yacht con una larghezza la più ridotta possibile.

Gli yacht veleggiavano al limite della stabilità, con un rapporto lunghezza/larghezza in continuo aumento tanto da arrivare ad imbarcazioni che a fronte di una lunghezza di 11 metri avevano una larghezza di soli m. 1,90 ( “Plank of edge” ).

Dopo diversi regolamenti e formule di stazza a cavallo tra il 1800 e i primi del 1900, si passò al RORC ( 1925 Royal Ocean Racing Club), poi dal Regolamento IOR (1970 Intenational  Offshore Rule), cui seguì l’ IMS ( 1988 ).

Oggi, due sono i sistemi di stazza più in vigore: IRC ( dal 1990 ), basato su un sistema semplificato di misurazione e rilevazione dei dati ( anche fai da te, senza intervento necessario dei costosi stazzatori ) ed anche economicamente vantaggioso - ORC , molto più preciso ma più costoso e complesso nelle rilevazioni e calcoli.

ISAF, ORC, IRC, RORC, CCA, IOR, UNCL… R = LOA + LWL 2 + ( I ⋅ 0,7 ) + ( P ⋅ 0,4 )… A = ( 2160 R ) - 258,17…stazza statunitense, stazza inglese, stazza metrica…questa è la situazione attuale della vela d’altura, in Italia e nel mondo: una gran confusione ( per i non addetti ai lavori ) di sigle e numeri !

CONTINUA...

Arch. Sacha Giannini [email protected] 338 4402633

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Come ti disegno la barca, ''BIO vs OGM'': eredità e genetica dello scafo

Lo scafo della barca

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COMMENTS

  1. Wow, that was fast! Why trimarans are SO much fun to sail

    Trimaran sail trim. One of the biggest differences between a cruising monohull and a multihull is how the mainsail is trimmed. Leech tension on a yacht is often largely controlled by the kicker and the backstay, while the mainsheet sheets the mainsail in and out, predominantly controlling the angle of the boom to the centreline, and there may be a short traveller.

  2. 2016

    A maxi trimaran for Edmond de Rothschild. Construction: 2016 Launch date: July 2017 Shipyard: Multiplast / Lorima / Persico Architects: Team Verdier (Guillaume Verdier, Morgane Schlumberger, Hervé Penfornis, Romaric Neyhousser), Bobby Kleinschmit (Team New Zealand), Bureau d'études Gitana (Antoine Koch, Marine Villard, Sébastien Sainson, Armand de Jacquelot, Julien Marcelet), Pure Design

  3. Trimarano

    Lunghezza fuori tutto: 8,8 m Larghezza: 6,8 m Pescaggio: 0,45, 1,6 m... Questo è il legittimo erede della rivoluzione del trimarano iniziata dal Hall-of-Fame F-27 nel 1986. L'apice del design del trimarano, questo nuovissimo costruito da zero Corsair ha sistemi completi, ...

  4. The ultimate foiling machine? Onboard SVR-Lazartigue

    SVR-Lazartigue is the newest Ultim trimaran, designed for current solo around the world record holder François Gabart. Gabart gave François Tregouet an exclusive tour of this extraordinary ...

  5. Ultim (trimaran sailboat class)

    Creation of the Ultime Class. In June 2015, an Ultim Collective formed around the Team Banque Populaire, Macif and Sodebo teams. They decided that the overall length should be between 23 meters (minimum) and 32 meters (maximum), which excludes the MOD 70 and Spindrift 2. The Mod 70 class boats, at 21.2-meters LOA, falls short of the class minimum.

  6. Trimaran

    Terminology. The word "trimaran" is a portmanteau of "tri" and "(cata)maran", a term that is thought to have been coined by Victor Tchetchet, a pioneering, Ukrainian-born modern multihull designer. Trimarans consist of a main hull connected to outrigger floats on either side by a crossbeam, wing, or other form of superstructure—the traditional Polynesian terms for the hull, each float and ...

  7. The Awesomeness of Trimaran SVR-Lazartigue

    Experience life onboard the giant, flying Ultime Trimaran SVR-Lazartigue as it prepares over the summer of 2021 for the start of the Transat Jacques Vabre. By Dave Reed. Updated: November 2, 2021.

  8. Technical Report on 20 Small Trimarans

    The 20 Small Trimarans included in this Report are the A21, Cardiff 21, Corsair Sprint, Day Tri 20, Discovery 20, Farrier F22, K24T, Hughes KH‑23 & KH‑24, Kolibri 23, Leneman L7, Magnum 21 & 21S, Ostlind Z65, Scarab 22 & 670, Spitfire 20, Tremolino, Trinado, and the Warren 23. Here is what some very well-known designers had to say about ...

  9. How to sail a trimaran

    For their size, trimarans can punch well above their weightin speed, cruising potential, and fun. Monohull sailorTheo Stocker gets to grips with how to handl...

  10. François Gabart launches latest record-chasing trimaran

    François Gabart, the solo non-stop around the world record holder, has unveiled a radical new Ultim giant trimaran with 'fighter jet' helm stations. Francois Gabart, currently the fastest man to ...

  11. Comparing Trimarans & Catamarans

    Trimarans have greater beam than catamarans, making them considerably more resistant to capsize by wind alone, whether gusts or sustained wind. They heel sooner and more than catamaran, giving more warning that they are over powered. Waves are a different matter. The amas are generally much finer, designed for low resistance when sailing deeply ...

  12. Trimaran Sailing Yacht Blue Coast 160®

    The 48m long carbon fibre trimaran yacht was designed by world-renowned naval architect Jean-Jacques Coste. Description. The BLUE COAST 160` has extendable side hulls. At sea, the overall width of 23 m then offers very stable sailing even in rougher seas. With the side hulls retracted, the yacht, which is only 11 m wide, finds suitable berths ...

  13. Trimarano barche in vendita

    Port Washington, Wisconsin, Stati Uniti. 2014. €226.911. "Merlot" is available now and Turn Key, Ready to go! Pride in ownership is Evident throughout the boat! Many Notable upgrades and custom features making her one of a Kind! Known as the "Swiss Army Knife" of trimarans, ready for cruising, racing, or passage making.

  14. Sandpiper-18, trimarano gonfiabile e semicabinato

    Il Sandpiper-18 è il nuovo trimarano gonfiabile della Sibcat, progettato per navigazione in laghi e lungo costa, è destinato al campeggio nautico con la sua piccola tenda per i bagagli, per un eventuale riparo durante la navigazione o utile come paraspruzzi. Queste sono le sue caratteristiche tecniche principali:

  15. Trimaran in vendita

    La migliore selezione di barche Trimaran tra cui scegliere. ... Trimaran. Trimaran in vendita. Filtri. Trimaran Cancella tutto. Nuovo & Usato. All. Nuova. Usata. Lunghezza. Anno. Prezzo. Tipo. Barche a vela (7) Barche a motore (2) 1. Costruttore. Trimaran (9) 2938 altre marche... Modello. Trimaran. Tutte Trimaran. Orma 60 (2) Custom 25 (1 ...

  16. Neel's fast ocean going trimarans are popular for good reasons

    There are several reasons why three hulls are better than two, especially if you're sailing offshore. First and foremost: weight distribution, which is far more important in a multihull than a monohull. The central hull of a trimaran is the ideal place to put all the heavy stuff, Bruneel explains, and having a single engine amidships is much ...

  17. Official website of the Trimaran SVR Lazartigue

    The result of 40 months' of teamwork, the SVR-LAZARTIGUE trimaran combines sleek lines and a futuristic design. Equipped with cutting-edge flight systems and piloting softwares, this giant of the seas is capable of high-speed flight around the planet. 150. Hours of work. 25. Crew members. 4350.

  18. Trimarani in vendita

    Lunghezza: prima le meno lunghe. sort-by. Prezzo: da più alto a più basso. sort-by. Prezzo: da più basso a più alto. sort-by. Marca: (A-Z) sort-by. Marca: (Z-A) ... Il trimarano è una barca formata da tre diversi scafi, uno centrale più grande che ospita la cabina e due più piccoli, uno su ciascun lato dello scafo centrale, uniti tra ...

  19. 16 Best Trimarans For Sailing Around The World (And a Few For

    This trimaran retails for $595,000, making it a cheaper option than the Rapido 60. 5. Dragonfly 40. The Dragonfly 40 measures 40 feet (12 meters) in length. It features high-comfort standards, making it one of the best trimarans in the market for taking your family for a cruise.

  20. "Noy", il mega trimarano elettrico ispirato all'Arca di Noè

    L'Arca di Noè del XXI secolo. Battezzato con il nome di " Noy ", il trimarano, che misura 66 metri di lunghezza e 76 di larghezza, è una rivisitazione in chiave moderna dell'antica barca della Bibbia. Non aspettatevi quindi travi in legno o animali a bordo. Il design esterno avrà invece un aspetto elegante ed angolare, che ricorderà ...

  21. Trimarani usati in vendita

    I trimarani saranno in grado di convincere anche il più reticente di noi: basta trovare il nostro trimarano ideale. I vantaggi dei trimarani. Navigare a bordo di un trimarano è un sogno che diventa realtà. I trimarani presentano numerosi vantaggi: basso rischio di capovolgimento: a bordo di un trimarano, questo rischio è limitato. Si crea ...

  22. Principi e teoria degli scafi: dislocamento e stazza

    La peculiarità di uno scafo dislocante è di avere una velocità teorica massima di avanzamento, detta anche critica, data dalla formula Vm = 1,35 √(L) dove L è la lunghezza al galleggiamento dello scafo espressa in piedi e Vm la velocità espressa in nodi.. Il compito del progettista è quindi quello di ottimizzare le forme di carena su questi parametri, velocità e lunghezza .

  23. SVR-Lazartigue Yacht

    SVR-Lazartigue is a sailing yacht with an overall length of m. The yacht's builder is MerConcept from France, who launched SVR-Lazartigue in 2021. The superyacht has a beam of m and a volume of . GT.. SVR-Lazartigue features exterior design by VPLP Design and interior design by VPLP Design. SVR-Lazartigue has a carbon fibre hull and a carbon fibre superstructure.. In the world rankings for ...