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Calibration of single phase energy meter by phantom loading

by eees.in · April 6, 2023

To calibrate the given single phase wattmeter by phantom loading at UPF and at 0.5pf.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

  • Energy meter

When current rating of the meter under test is high, a test with actual loading arrangements involves considerable waste of power. Phantom loading consists of supplying the pressure circuit with required normal voltage and the current circuit from a low voltage supply. the total power required for testing the meter with phantom loading is comparatively very small.

  • Connections are made as shown in diagram 
  • The rated voltage applied across pressure coil 
  • Keep the autotransformer at its minimum position and switch on the power supply. 
  • Adjust the autotransformer for various values of current from minimum to maximum 
  • Take all meter readings and time taken for 5revolution of E/M disc 
  • Plot error and calibration curve  

At 0.5pf lag 

  • Connect the pressure coil across N&Y and CC in R phase 
  • Repeat the same procedure mentioned above 
  • Plot the error and calibration curve

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

calibration of single phase energy meter by phantom loading theory

OBSERVATION:

The given single phase energy meter is calibrated at UPF and 0.5 lag by phantom loading

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CALIBRATION OF SINGLE PHASE ENERGY METER

calibration of single phase energy meter by phantom loading theory

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Phantom Loading in Energy Meter - Circuit Diagram & Example

In the energy meter testing, the actual registration of energy (by the meter) is verified against known standard values at various loads and power factors. The energy meter testing helps in providing suitable adjustments in the meter so as to reduce errors. The actual registration is verified under the following test conditions.

At rated voltage, 5% of rated current and unity power factor. At rated voltage, 125% of rated current and unity power factor. At rated voltage, rated current, and 0.5 lagging power factor. At rated voltage, 50% of rated current and unity power factor. At rated voltage, 0.5% of rated current and unity power factor. This test is called starting test. Since, at this small load also, the disc should start rotating, Of course, accuracy is not the criteria in this test. At 110% of rated voltage and open-circuited current coil. This test is called as creep test. The disc should not creep (or rotate) under this test conditions.

In order to test high capacity energy meters for the above conditions, tremendous loss of power will occur. Hence, to reduce wastage of power, phantom loading is used for testing the energy meter.

Phantom Loading :

Phantom loading is a fictitious loading that resembles the actual full-load conditions. The main advantage of testing a meter under phantom loading conditions over direct loading one is that the power or energy consumption is comparatively too small.

Phantom Loading in Energy Meter

As shown in the figure above, the pressure coil (or the shunt winding) is energized with its rated voltage and the current coil (or the series winding) is energized by a low voltage supply. The impedance of the current coil circuit is quite small. So for the rated amount of current also, the power consumption will be small. Although the impedance of the pressure coil is high, the current through it is very small.

Hence, the power consumed in the pressure coil will also be small. Therefore, the overall power or energy dissipation during the testing period will be small. For this reason, phantom loading is considered to be the most economical one for testing purposes.

Example on Phantom Loading :

Consider a 220V, 5A, dc energy meter is tested at the marked ratings. The resistance of the pressure coil circuit is 8800 ohm and that of a current coil is 0.1 ohm. Let us see the power consumed when testing the meter by direct loading and phantom loading.

Power Consumed With Direct Loading Arrangement :

The below shows the circuit diagram for the direct loading arrangement. power dissipation in the pressure coil, power dissipation in the series combination current coil and load, therefore, total power consumption,, power consumed with phantom loading :, the below shows the circuit diagram for the phantom loading arrangement. power dissipation in the pressure coil, exciting current coil circuit by 6 volts battery. power dissipation in the current coil circuit, therefore, total power consumption, hence, the power consumption in phantom loading is very small when compared to direct loading..

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Calibration and Testing of Single-Phase Energy Meter

Our aim here is to calibrate the given Single-Phase Energy Meter using a precession Wattmeter and stopwatch using or employing phantom loading . The main apparatus required for conducting this practical experiment include:

  • Single-Phase Induction type Energy Meter – 240V (5-10)A
  • Wattmeter 300V/10A UPF
  • Phase Shifting Transformer 440V/440, 500VA
  • Single-Phase Variac – 240V / (0-270)V

Procedure for calibration and testing of Single-Phase Energy Meter :-

  • Give the connections as per the circuit diagram above.
  • Apply 220V A.C to the pressure coil circuit by means of phase shifting transformer.
  • Apply a load of 2 Amps by switching on the load.
  • Note down the reading of two meters in a given period of time, say 2 minutes.
  • Find out the percentage error at this load.
  • Now rotate the rotor of phase shifting transformer so that the working power factor (p.f) of the meter is varied.
  • For this power factor repeat steps 4 and 5.

Thus we’ve done the testing and calibration of a given Single-Phase energy meter.

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IMAGES

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  2. [Explained] Phantom Loading in Energy Meter

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